Answer :

(a) Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms.

(B) A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes are made up of DNA. Some genes act as instructions to make molecules called proteins. Genes are located in the chromosomes.


(c) Speciation is the formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution.


Three factors:


(A) Natural Selection: Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype. It is a key mechanism of evolution, the change in the heritable traits characteristic of a population over generations


(B) Genetic Drift: Genetic drift is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant in a population due to random sampling of organisms. The alleles in the offspring are a sample of those in the parents, and chance has a role in determining whether a given individual survives and reproduces.


(c) Geographical Isolation: Geographic isolation is a term that refers to a population of animals, plants, or other organisms that are separated from exchanging genetic material with other organisms of the same species.


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