(i) Francois Bernier condemned Mughal rulers in his work Travels in the Mughal Empire. He criticized the crown ownership of land which has led to the ruination of the peasantry and the emergence of the small class of aristocracy. He also pointed to the fact that the Mughal society consisted of the undifferentiated masses of impoverished people
(ii) The chronicles commissioned by Abu’l Fazl nowhere mentioned that state was the sole owner of the land. Rather he described the land revenue as “remunerations of sovereignty”. It was a claim made by the ruler for the protection he provided to his subjects. Whereas Francois Bernier regarded the land revenue as rent which was expropriated by the ruler. He claimed that the emperor owned the entire land.
(iii) Bernier warned that if the European kings followed the Mughal model: they would be left deserted, far from being rich, well-cultivated and flourishing. They would become the kings of deserts and solitudes, of beggars and barbarians. The cities will become polluted and there would be no one to take care of their bodies. The land would be left abandoned and the prosperity will vanish away.
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