The growth rings in the trunk of the tree are formed by cambial ring due to secondary growth.
Each ring contains early wood and late wood. Secondary growth occurs in dicot trees due to the activity of cambium which is a meristematic tissue.
The concentric growth rings are called annual rings.
The rate of activity of cambium is more in spring than in winter so wood formed has larger wider xylem cells and called spring wood or early wood, whereas wood formed in winter has narrower and smaller xylem elements and called autumn wood or late wood. And also the wood formed during spring is light-coloured with low density and the wood formed during winter is dark-coloured with high density. This result in the formation of alternate concentric rings called growth rings.
By counting these rings, age of the tree can be determined.
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