A. The four components of an ecosystem:
Productivity: In a pond ecosystem, phytoplankton, algae, floating and submerged plants are the producers. They make food from the sunlight in the process of photosynthesis. Thus, they contribute to primary productivity.
Decomposition: Decomposers such as fungi, bacteria break down dead and decaying organic matter into simpler compounds.
Energy Flow: Energy flow from producer to different consumers in a unidirectional manner. Some of the energy is lost in the form of heat to the environment.
Nutrient cycle: The dead organic matter is mineralised and release them back to the environment for the use of autotrophs.
B. Aquatic food chain operates in a pond.
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