# (a) State the law

(a) The two laws of refraction of light are as follows:

(i) The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal at the point of coincidence, lie in the same plane.

(ii) The second law of refraction is also known as Snell’s law of refraction and it states that: the ratio of Sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of refraction is constant for a given pair of media. It establishes a relation between angle of incidence and angle of refraction.

It can be expressed mathematically as follows:

When one medium is vacuum or air and light is going to another medium, then the constant is known as absolute refractive index.

The refractive index of any medium 'A' with respect to a medium 'B' related to the speed of propagation of light in two media A and B can be written as follows:

=

Where, vB is the speed of light in medium ‘B’ and vA is the speed of light in medium ‘A’

BnA is the refractive index of medium ‘A’ with respect to medium ‘B’

(b) When one medium is vacuum or air and light is going to another medium, then the constant is known as absolute refractive index.

Given: Refractive index of glass,= 3/2

Vw = 4/3

speed of light in glass, ug =2 x m/s

Applying the formula:

Putting the above values

Therefore, velocity of light in vacuum is 3×108 m/s

Now, for calculating the velocity of light in air

Applying the formula:

Therefore, velocity of light in air is 2.25×108 m/s

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