Answer :

(a) The shapeless lump of mass (X) is known as callus.

(b) This method is known as tissue culture.’


(c) The growth medium used in this method contains plant nutrients in the form of a 'jelly'. This jelly is known as agar.


(d) The general name of chemicals used to stimulate the growth of plant cells and development of roots and shoots is known as plant hormones.


(e) Dahlia and Carnation


(f) Advantages: (i) The new plants produced by tissue culture are disease free.


(ii) Tissue culture can grow plants round the year, irrespective of weather or season.


(g) The other name of tissue culture is micropropagation.


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