Q. 38

A satellite is in an elliptic orbit around the earth with aphelion of 6R and perihelion of 2 R where R = 6400 km is the radius of the earth. Find eccentricity of the orbit. Find the velocity of the satellite at apogee and perigee. What should be done if this satellite has to be transferred to a circular orbit of radius 6R?

[G = 6.67 × 10 - 11 SI units and M = 6 × 1024 kg]

Answer :

Given


Radius of earth = R = 6400 km


Aphelion earth - satellite distance ra = 6R


Perihelion earth - satellite distance rp = 2R


We know for an ellipse




Where e is the eccentricity of the ellipse, and the semi major axis.




Now, the angular momentum of the satellite is conserved we then, we have



Where m is the mass of satellite and vp and va are the velocities at the perigee and apogee respectively



Now from conservation of energy at the apogee and perigee



Where K and U are the kinetic and gravitational potential energy of the satellite



Where M is the mass of earth. Using the relation between vp and va above we have



Putting the values of rp and ra we have




To transfer the satellite to a circular orbit of radius 6R the satellite’s velocity has to be maintained at a value of



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