Answer :

Given:

(a)The theorem of perpendicular axes states that the moment of inertia of a planar body (lamina) about an axis perpendicular to its plane is equal to the sum of its moments of inertia about two perpendicular axes concurrent with perpendicular axis and lying in the plane of the body.


A physical body with center O and a point mass m, in the x–y plane at (x, y) is shown in the following figure.


14156403089254.jpg


Moment of inertia about x-axis, Ix = mx2


Moment of inertia about y-axis, Iy = my2


Moment of inertia about z-axis, z


Ix + Iy = mx2 + my2


Ix + Iy = m(x2 + y2)


We can write the following equation as,


Ix + Iy = m{(x2 + y2)1/2}2


Ix + Iy= Iz


Hence, the theorem is proved.


(b)The theorem of parallel axes states that the moment of inertia of a body about any axis is equal to the sum of the moment of inertia of the body about a parallel axis passing through its center of mass and the product of it ass and the square of the distance between the two parallel axes.


14156403129224.jpg


Suppose a rigid body is made up of n particles, having massesm1, m2, m3 …mn , at perpendicular distances r1, r2 �, r3, … rn respectively from the center of mass O of the rigid body.


The moment of inertia about axis RS passing through the point O:



The perpendicular distance of mass mi, from the axis QP = a + ri


Hence, the moment of inertia about axis QP:






Now, at the center of mass, the moment of inertia of all the particles about the axis passing through the center of mass is zero, that is,



a≠0


∑miri = 0


Also,


∑mi = M


Where,


M = Total mass of the rigid body


IQP = IRS + Ma2


Hence, the theorem is proved.


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