(a) During the metabolism of glucose, there could be 2 possible conditions. Since we know that during the electron transport chain occurring in mitochondria, oxygen is the ultimate electron acceptor.
So the 2 conditions can be defined as aerobic(in presence of oxygen) and anaerobic(in the absence of oxygen) .
Under Aerobic conditions:- when glucose is broken into pyruvate molecules in glycolysis, pyruvate molecules further enters the Kreb cycle and overall 36 ATP are generated.
Under Anaerobic conditions :-Since here oxygen is not present, thus there is no electron acceptor at the end of electron transport chain, thus the pyruvate molecules generated undergo fermentation and alcohol is produced as an end product(in microorganisms) while lactic acid is the end product in muscle cells and only 2 AT are generated.
(b) The main difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration is that aerobic needs oxygen to supply the body with ATP energy. But, anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen in order to provide energy.
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