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(a) Sociobiologist Edward Wilson used the term ‘biodiversity’ to describe the combined diversity (heterogeneity) at all levels of biological organisation. Our biosphere exhibit immense diversity not only at the species level but at all levels of biological organisation ranging from macromolecules within cells to biomes. If we consider India at the ecosystem level, we observe that India has greater ecosystem diversity than a Scandinavian country Norway. India has deserts, dense rain forests, mangroves, coral reefs, wetlands, alpine meadows and estuaries.

(b) Differences between genetic and species biodiversity are given below:


When it comes to treating sewage water, it is observed that solid wastes are relatively easy to remove, but dissolved salts (nitrates, phosphates) and metal ions are difficult to remove.

Effects on the characteristics of a river when urban sewage is discharged into it

Domestic sewage consists of biodegradable organic matter, which readily decomposes by the action of microorganisms, which can multiply using these organic substances as substrates. It is possible to estimate the amount of biodegradable organic matter in sewage water by measuring Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD).

Microorganisms involved in biodegradation of organic matter of the river consume a lot of oxygen, and as a result, there is a sharp decline in dissolved. This causes mortality of fish and other aquatic creatures.

Presence of large amounts of nutrients in water bodies also causes excessive growth of planktonic (free-floating) algae, called an algal bloom that imparts a distinct colour to the water bodies. Algal blooms cause deterioration of the water quality and death of aquatic animals. Some bloom-forming algae are extremely toxic.

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