(a) (i) In the same group, all the elements have same number of valence electrons.
Group number of an element (up to 2 valence electrons) = no. of valence electrons
Group n. of element (more than 2 valence electrons) = 10+ Valence electrons.
(i) Elements present in the same period have same number of shells.
Period number of an element = no. of shells in an atom
(b) (i) As we go down the group, no. of shells increases at every step.
(ii) As we go from left to right in a period, no. of valence electrons of an element increases from period 1 to period 8.
(iii)When we move from left to right in a period, there is increase in the large positive charge on the nucleus. As a result, the forces of attraction between the nucleus and the electrons increases. This led to increase in the atomic radius of the elements from left to right in a period.
(iv)The atomic size increases down the group due to increase in a shell at every step.
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