Answer :

a) The three reasons necessary for long-distance transmission are:

i) A reasonable length of the transmission antenna.

ii) Increase in effective power radiated by the antenna.

iii) Reduction in the possibility of “mix-up‟ of different signals.

b) In Amplitude modulation, the transmission of a wave signal is done by modulating the amplitude. At the source, the information signal is modulated and sent to the receiver, once it is received, it is then demodulated and filtered to remove any disturbance in the original signal that may have occurred during the transmission. The amplitude modulation is the process of superimposing the information signal with a carrier generated signal. 
The information signal is the data message signal stored on a network that has to be transmitted from a source to a receiver.
A carrier wave is an electromagnetic wave of fixed amplitude and of a constant frequency that is modulated with an input message signal for the purpose of transmission. 

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