(a) Birds have evolved from reptiles. This is evident by a fossil bird named Archaeopteryx which has looks like a bird but the features have similarities with the reptiles such as it has feathers wings like birds but the teeth of Archaeopteryx look like those of reptiles. Thus Archaeopteryx connects reptiles and birds and it seems that birds have been evolved from the reptiles.
(b) No, we can’t group Insects, octopus, planaria and vertebrates on the basis of eyes because the eye structure is different in different organisms and thus suggests their separate origin of evolution.
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