Answer :

(a) When the magnetic moments are all aligned upwards in the same direction, ferromagnetism is shown.

(b) Given, the formula of nickel oxide is Ni0.98 O1.00.

So the ration of atoms of Ni and O are Ni:O = 98:100.

Thus, for 1 atom of oxygen there are0.98 atoms of Ni.

Let us consider the number of atoms of Ni+2to be x.

Then number of atoms of Ni3+ = (0.98–x). [As total Ni atoms are 0.98]

As always, total charge on cation (Ni2+ and Ni3+)= Total charge on anion (O2-)


So, x = 0.94 = No. of Ni2+ions.

No. of Ni3+ ions = 0.98-x = 0.98-0.94 = 0.04

Thus, fraction of Ni2+ existing =

Similarly, fraction of Ni3+ existing =

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