(A) Amniocentesis – It is a pre-natal diagnostic test in which amniotic fluid (the fluid that surrounds the unborn baby inside the uterus) is drawn out from the womb of a pregnant woman using a needle. It is used to test the chromosomal pattern of the cells in the amniotic fluid which helps to determine the sex of the foetus and to detect genetic disorders like Down’s syndrome, anaemia, thalassemia, etc.
(B) Lactational amenorrhea – During lactation, the menstruation is absent in the woman who is lactating. This is known as lactational amenorrhea. The chances of conception during this time period are nearly zero.
(C) ZIFT – It is the short form of Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer. The sperm of the male and ova from the female are fused together in the laboratory. This leads to the formation of a zygote which when is at the 8-blastomere stage, is transferred to the fallopian tube.
(c) A poster including the slogans about the importance of reproductive health care and child health care. Include slogans like "Hum Do Humaare Do" or "Stop Female Infanticide" or "AIDS Prevention."
(a) The viable seeds produced without pollination or fertilization, are called apomitic seeds. It is an asexual method so the offspring is a clone of parent. Example – Asteraceae and grasses.
Ways to develop apomictic seeds –
•In some species, the diploid egg cell is formed without reduction division and hence develops into embryo without fertilization.
•In many varieties, some of the nucellar cells surrounding the embryo sac start dividing, protrude into the embryo sac and develop into the embryos.
(b) Advantage of apomictic crop – Reduction in the cost of production of hybrids
Disadvantage of apomictic crop – Reduction in the genetic diversity from one generation to the other as there is no variation from parent to offspring in asexual reproduction.
(c) Production of hybrid seeds involves emasculation, bagging, raising of seedlings in nursery beds, etc. This is time consuming and not economically beneficial for the farmers. Also the hybrid seeds can’t be used in next season so it adds up to the cost.
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