(a) The following figure shows an electric dipole with charges and separated by a distance in a electric field .
The dipole moment is given by
Now, the torque on the dipole is
Therefore, work done by this torque in rotating the dipole is
Now, let and
Now, for stable equilibrium,
And unstable equilibrium gives
(b) From the figure it is evident that the potential at point P is due to three charges.
Where potential is given by where , q is the charge and r is the distance of the point from the charge.
(a) Electric flux is the amount of electric field crossing a given area or the integral of electric field over a given surface. Mathematically,
(b) The gauss law states that the total flux crossing a surface is directly proportional to the amount of electric charge held within the surface.
Here, the charge enclosed by the cube is q. Therefore, the flux is
(c) To calculate flux, we create a hypothetical Gaussian pill box through the surface. The area of the face of the cylinder is while the electric field is .
The area and the field are at right angles throughout the surface of the cylinders except the faces.
Hence in the curved surface area, the flux is
At either side, the flux is
Total flux thus becomes (due to the two surfaces)
So the electric field has no dependence on distance, and only depends on the charge density of the sheet.
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