The basic steps in the procedure of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) would involve the following:
a. Extraction of gametes i.e., sperm ang egg from the parents or the donors.
b. In-vitro fertilization of the gametes in the stimulated conditions in a laboratory.
c. Transfer of the zygote or the developing embryo, at the early stage of 8-cells, into the fallopian tube of the mother or the surrogate.
A parthenocarpic fruit is formed without fertilization from an unfertilised ovary in plants whereas a parthenogenic animal is formed when the ovum develops into the offspring without fertilization.
In banana, the fruit develops without fertilization from an unfertilised ovary whereas in turkey, a chick is developed from the egg without fertilization.
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